Microscopic Materials: An Interview with Marco Bernardi

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Required fields are marked * Community News Community News faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyCitizen Service CenterPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday center_img First Heatwave Expected Next Week EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS HerbeautyThese Are 15 Great Style Tips From Asian WomenHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyShort On Time? 10-Minute Workouts Are Just What You NeedHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyA Mental Health Chatbot Which Helps People With DepressionHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyTips From A Professional Stylist On How To Look Stunning In 2020HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyAmazing Sparks Of On-Screen Chemistry From The 90-sHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyA Dark Side Of Beauty Salons Not Many People Know AboutHerbeautyHerbeauty Top of the News Science and Technology Microscopic Materials: An Interview with Marco Bernardi By LORI DAJOSE Published on Tuesday, January 19, 2016 | 12:12 pm Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Credit: Lance Hayashida/CaltechAll materials, including the screen on which you are currently reading this text, are composed of a tiny universe of particles. These particles are not only the physical ones, like electrons and atomic nuclei, but also excited states (or so-called quasiparticles) that constantly collide and bounce, gaining and losing energy. Marco Bernardi, a newly appointed assistant professor of applied physics and materials science in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, is fascinated by these interactions and how they give rise to the world around us. We spoke with Bernardi about his research on energy in materials and also about his new life in the California sun.You study materials on a tiny, atomic scale. What does that look like?At the microscopic scale, all materials are made up of numerous interacting particles, trading energy with one another through various collisions that we call scattering processes. For example, if you excite a material with light, electrons inside will undergo scattering processes to release this excess energy. They can emit light as a photon, emit vibrations as a phonon, or trade energy with other electrons. Surprisingly, these processes occur even in the dark, as all materials maintain an equilibrium with the environment by exchanging energy. Materials hide an intangible universe.What are you trying to discover about these excited states?We study the collision processes between these excited states, both to understand the fundamental science and because they are essential for applications. These processes take place on a femtosecond timescale—a femtosecond is a millionth of a billionth of a second—so they are very challenging to study experimentally. One thing we examine is how long it takes for a material to go back to its normal state of equilibrium after it has been excited. For example: if you excite a piece of gallium arsenide by shining light on it, then it will reemit light as it returns back to its equilibrium state. This emission fades out in time. We want to characterize the timescale for this emission decay, which is called the photoluminescence lifetime. Other examples are the scattering of an electron by a crystalline defect in a material, or the time for the spin of an electron to reorient. If we can understand the timescale for the interactions among electrons, phonons, light, defects, spin, and other excited states, we can predict how materials transport electricity and heat, emit and absorb light, and convert energy into different forms. Applications in electronics, optoelectronics, ultrafast science, and renewable energy abound.In some cases, the questions we ask have already been examined experimentally. Experimentally, it has been determined that an excited electron in silicon loses energy on a femtosecond timescale, and the conductivity of a simple material like gold has been found. But my group aims to look at materials theoretically. We use the atomic structure of materials—the way their atoms are positioned—as the only input, and solve the equations of quantum mechanics in a computer, without any information from experiment. With this approach, we can understand microscopic details out of reach for experiments and can investigate materials that have not yet been fabricated, besides being able to obtain known experimental results. Some problems, like calculating the conductivity of gold, may sound trivial—but nobody has ever computationally calculated the correct conductivity of gold without any information from experiment, and in particular without knowledge of the timescale for electron scattering. There are also a lot of new experiments studying materials at extremely short timescales, some of them requiring multimillion-dollar lasers, but few theories that can explain them. We are working on computational tools that can understand and microscopically interpret both traditional and less traditional experimental scenarios.We have a fair understanding of most of the different types of scattering processes, and we have ambitious plans to combine all of these computational approaches for different microscopic phenomena into one big code that can calculate everything that’s going on in an excited material. Employing massively parallel algorithms and running them on our computer cluster at Caltech or at national supercomputing facilities, this code would open new avenues for our research.What are some applications of this work?In any application where current or light is involved, scattering processes between electrons or other excited states control the behavior of the device. This includes solar panels, circuits, transistors, displays, and other electrically conductive materials. Understanding the timescale and the microscopic details of these scattering processes could allow one to create more efficient solar energy conversion devices, light emitters, and circuits, among other applications; or even “just” understand the behavior of matter at the shortest possible timescale.What excites you most about being at Caltech?I’m most excited about the emphasis on fundamental science here. People can be really tempted by “flashy” science or experiments on hot topics. But to compute what I’m trying to look at, we have to first build our understanding on simple experiments and materials—boring things—before we are able to tackle materials at the frontier of condensed matter research. Nobody really wants to do basic measurements on pieces of silicon or gold. But fundamentally we don’t know how to compute in detail basic excitations in materials. Caltech supports this kind of science. And no matter what you’re working on, you can talk to somebody who will give you some unique perspective or insight.What is your background? How did you get interested in this field?I grew up in Italy. In high school, I really enjoyed math and physics. I read an article about carbon nanotubes and nanotechnology, and during my undergraduate education in Italy I became very interested in the physics of materials. Carbon nanotubes can be either metallic or semiconducting—a material where you can control how much current can flow through—so you should be able to create all kinds of parts of a device just made out of these tubes. During my PhD work at MIT, my advisor and I predicted that it would be possible to create a solar cell entirely out of carbon nanotubes. We worked together with a colleague who synthesized the device from our design, and now we have the world record for making a solar cell entirely out of carbon. In the two years that I spent at Berkeley, I discovered that I wanted to understand the dynamics of how particles and excited states exchange energy in materials. Now I’m deeply settled and focused on this problem.What’s your favorite thing about being in Southern California?It’s always sunny. I love swimming, and the outdoor swimming pools are great—at MIT, it was generally too cold to go swim outside. So I’m taking full advantage of how warm it is here.What do you like to do outside of work?I love traveling and planning trips. I like to pick a country, go online and find all kinds of options for routes and itineraries, and go explore for two weeks. If I weren’t doing science I would probably be traveling and learning languages and talking to people. I’ve been to Japan and Chile recently, and I would really like to see more of Asia but it’s getting more complicated—my wife and I are expecting a baby! My maps tell me that I currently have seen 20 percent of the whole world—on land, that is. My ambition is to get to 80 percent one day. Make a comment Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenalast_img read more

Tim Hortons prepares to open its largest UK site yet

first_imgCanadian bakery and café chain Tim Hortons is to open a 6,500 square feet site in Leicester city centre.The café will open in East Gates later this year and will have seating for more than 150 customers.The building it will be located in dates back to 1885, when East Gates Coffee House first opened and created a popular spot for coffee lovers during the temperance movement, said Tim Hortons.”We’re delighted to have secured a fantastic location right in the heart of Leicester for our largest restaurant to date,” said Tim Hortons UK chief finance and commercial officer Kevin Hydes.“The beautiful and historic building is a true landmark within the city, and we hope will become a favourite destination for the people of Leicester.”Tim Hortons was founded in Canada in 1964 by its namesake, a professional ice hockey player. It now has more than 4,700 sites across the world and is well known for its signature Timbits doughnut bites.The brand made its UK debut in Glasgow two years ago and now operates 21 sites in cities including Glasgow, Cardiff, Manchester and Belfast.Tim Hortons was among the chains highlighted in British Baker’s look at businesses that could change the shape of the UK bakery market.last_img read more

This character home was a big hit at auction

first_imgThe home at 8 Jack Street, Gordon Park.A CHARMING Queenslander in a sought-after pocket of Gordon Park has sold at auction for $800,000. The three-bedroom house at 8 Jack St recently went under the hammer in front of eight registered bidders.Marketing agent Brooke Copping of Ray White Wilston said the winning bidder was a young family from a nearby suburb, who planned to raise the house, build underneath and renovate.She said the property’s proximity to Kedron Brook parklands, its character features and larger-than-average 607sq m block made it very appealing.More from newsFor under $10m you can buy a luxurious home with a two-lane bowling alley5 Apr 2017Military and railway history come together on bush block24 Apr 2019The home at 8 Jack Street, Gordon Park.The house itself features a front veranda, leadlight windows, elevated ceilings, polished timber floors and french doors leading to a large entertaining deck. The home is in a quiet street, with easy access to the Northern Busway and the tunnel network.Ms Copping said Gordon Park was a highly sought-after suburb, with many now priced out of nearby Grange and Wilston.“Because it’s such a small suburb, supply is tight, but demand is quite high,” she said. Gordon Park is 6km from the CBD and has a median house price of $790,000, according to CoreLogic.last_img read more

Judge will not dismiss prosecutor in Parkland shooter case

first_imgA Florida judge is refusing to take the lead prosecutor off of the case of confessed Parkland school shooter Nikolas Cruz.In her ruling Thursday, the Broward County judge said Cruz does not have any right to choose the prosecutor in his case.Cruz’s public defenders had asked to remove State Attorney Michael Satz for refusing to consider anything other than the death penalty for Cruz and allegedly calling Cruz “evil” and worse than serial killer Ted Bundy.Cruz is accused of killing 17 people during the Valentine’s Day 2018 mass shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland.Defense attorneys have said Cruz would plead guilty to killing 17 people at the Parkland high school in exchange for life in prison.He is set to go to trial on capital murder charges in January 2020 and could get the death penalty if convicted.Related content:Prosecutor: Nik Cruz “Worse than Bundy” and Refuses to Reconsider Death Penaltylast_img read more

Hazardous Crosswalks: Ambulance Hits Pedestrian on Broad Street

first_imgA group, including a baby in a stroller, cross against the light in front of a car at the intersection of Broad and Monmouth Streets in Red Bank, NJ on April 1, 2015. Photo by Tina Colella RED BANK – An ambulance was traveling north on Broad Street Wednesday when it struck a pedestrian crossing the intersection, at Monmouth Street.The pedestrian, Thomas Thatcher, 66, of Hackettstown suffered a minor injury but refused treatment at the scene from the crew of a second MONOC ambulance called to the accident less than two minutes later, at 1:17 p.m., said MONOC Director of Operations Andy Caruso.“He was struck and knocked down and immediately got up,” said Caruso. “He refused medical attention and went on his way.” “We were traveling within safe speeds, going through downtown Red Bank with regard to pedestrians when unexpectedly this person stepped out in front of the ambulance,” said Caruso.“Our drivers are well trained in operating emergency vehicles and act with due regard.” He added, “The driver of our ambulance was naturally shaken up.” PoliceChief Darren McConnell confirmed the pedestrian was crossing against the light. Police did not issue any summonses, he said.Many walkers choose to cross against the light at the busy intersection of Broad and Monmouth Streets. Photo by Tina ColellaIt’s not unusual to see people lose patience and cross against the light on Broad Street. On Wednesday, a Two River Times photographer observed at least 20 people crossing Broad Street at the Monmouth Street intersection against the light, some pushing baby strollers. The traffic light at the Broad and Monmouth Street intersections are equipped with button sensors to change the traffic signal for pedestrians. Those sensors, when pushed by pedestrians, change the signal in approximately 1 minute, 45 seconds; if the sensor is not pushed, the light cycle is about two minutes to go from red to green. While the signal may be green for the entire period, the actual period for pedestrians to cross – designated by a pedestrian silhouette – runs about 20 seconds (with the last 10 seconds counting down in red numerals). Mayor Pasquale Menna said those measures and times were appropriate to address pedestrian safety at that particular intersection.As for Wednesday’s incident, Menna said, “How is any government, how is any regulation, how is any rule going to protect somebody who’s not looking where he’s going?”But there are those who disagree. Crossing Broad Street can be dangerous for pedestrians, even when they have the light, said Kelsey Guthrie, the manager of Yestercades, who witnessed the aftermath of the accident across the street Wednesday. “I see a lot of people not stopping for people at the crosswalk – including myself. I’ve almost been hit multiple times,” she said “People who are driving in town definitely have to be more aware that this is a pedestrian town. It’s full of people walking around.”In meetings with civic leaders, including Menna, The Two River Times is exploring in its “Crossroads” series the inherent conflict between pedestrians and vehicles and possible solutions in the active Red Bank community, a commercial and cultural destination.State Senator Jennifer Beck (R-11), who is a stakeholder in this safety initiative, said of Wednesday’s collision, “It elevates and highlights the importance of pedestrian safety in the popular town of Red Bank.”The Two River Times initiative has resulted in Red Bank requesting and the Board of Chosen Freeholders agreeing to study the intersection at Broad and Front streets where drivers and pedestrians are told simultaneously to proceed.The Task Force, formed and coordinated by the Two River Times and comprised of Red Bank and now Fair Haven municipal officials, state senators, school officials, RiverCenter, Meridian Health, and Newport Media Holdings, LLC, is examining safety in the Two River area, beginning in Red Bank.By Christina Johnson and John Burtonlast_img read more

Leafs add size to the blueline with addition of Patrick Coome

first_img“He’s big, and he brings our defence to six D,” Maida told The Nelson Daily.Maida has totally revamped the Leafs from the team that was knocked out of the KIJHL playoffs in the first round for the third consecutive season.And that team has been on fire to start the season, undefeated in September – five exhibition wins and two regular season victories.“I’m very happy with the way we’ve started the season,” Maida explained. “But we’ve got a long way to go.”Maida was pleased with opening weekend after registering wins over Murdoch Division rival Castlegar and outlasting Creston Valley Thunder Cats.“I thought we played well early in both games, had a bit of a lapse in both games but were able to get is back,” he said.ICE CHIPS: The Leafs have just one game this weekend against the Steam. . . . Don’t look know but if the season ended today, the Grand Forks Border Bruins would hold down top spot in the Murdoch Division after starting the season with three straight wins — two over Spokane and an overtime win against Castlegar. . . . Nelson hosts Grand Forks Saturday, September 28. . . . Nelson dealt the rights of Colton St. John to Creston for future considerations. . . . Former Nelson Leafs Linden Horswill has left the Trail Smokie Eaters of the BCHL. He’s a player Leaf fans won’t miss on the ice.Nelson Leafs coach Frank Maida added another piece to the 2013-14 roster by acquiring 6’4”, 200-pound defenceman Patrick Coome from the Comox Valley Glacier Kings.Coome, a late cut from Portage La Prairie of the Manitoba Junior Hockey League, is expected to be in the lineup Friday when Nelson hosts Summerland Steam in Kootenay International Junior Hockey League interlocking action at 7 p.m. in the NDCC Arena.last_img read more

Legal with Leah: What a good lease should look like

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Get it in writing is good advice, especially when it comes to leasing land. In this episode of Legal with Leah, Farm Bureau Policy Counsel Leah Curtis explains why and what a good lease should look like.Listen to Legal with Leah, a podcast featuring Ohio Farm Bureau’s Policy Counsel Leah Curtis discussing topics impacting farmers and landowners.TranscriptionJoe Cornely: In today’s world, I think it’s sound advice that no matter what the deal is — get it in writing. But as we also know, traditionally in agriculture, it doesn’t always work that way and might be a bit problematic. Farm Bureau Policy Counsel Leah Curtis is with us today. If I want to rent the neighbor’s land, we usually shake hands, agree to a price and then move on and maybe not such a good idea anymore.Leah Curtis: We know that that is how most farm leases happen. And I understand why people do that. And that’s still the custom. However, technically under the law, that handshake and promise is not necessarily going to be enforceable. If something happens, you guys have a falling out or somebody else comes along and he wants to rent it to somebody else, the court is not necessarily going to enforce that agreement because it’s not in writing.Joe Cornely So let’s talk a little bit about when it most definitely should be in writing. We’re saying all the time, but if there are some particulars. When is it especially important to get it on paper?Leah Curtis: So because of a law called the statute of frauds, land leases in particular are always supposed to be in writing. If it is going to be a lease for longer than three years then it should not only be in writing, it should be recorded and notarized, and in writing and recorded and notarized…all those things are there to protect both parties. If it’s in writing, we have something to look at. If it’s recorded, then not only do you have something to look at, but anybody who might buy that property also now knows that that lease is there and on record.Joe Cornely: So owner and renter both benefit when it’s on paper. What are some things that should be in the lease?Leah Curtis: Well, certainly the rent should be there. The length of time that the lease is in effect should be there. Those are at least the two most important. But you can also talk about does this lease survive a transfer to another owner. If the landowner sells, does the lease go on? Are there any restrictions that either farmer or landowner want to talk about or establish? But most importantly, again, is that deadline, that time of when you need to know to renew it or to cancel it, because that is where we see the most problems and we get the most calls is the landowner or the farmer decides they want to renew and the other party did not want to renew. And now you’re in a fight about who gets to keep using that land.Joe Cornely: So, again, repeating, the best advice, get it on paper. If I’ve got a lease, though, with somebody that I’ve had forever and it was a handshake deal and things go sideways. How does that play out if a court has to be brought in on a handshake deal?Leah Curtis: So courts will sometimes look at what has happened between the two parties and they may enforce the lease, at least to the point of maybe allowing you to harvest the crops or refunding the money you’ve spent in preparing. We usually call this unjust enrichment in law school. And it’s basically maybe you as the farmer, you’ve spent some money, you’ve made that land better, and now that landowner doesn’t want to let you use it. Maybe you’ve put fertilizer down on it or whatever. So the court may give you back the costs that you spent on fertilizer. They’re not necessarily going to let you keep farming that land. So that’s why it’s good to have it in writing, because then the court can see what your agreements actually were and the term and all of that. And then they’re able to enforce it versus just saying, well, you’re out of luck for actually farming it, but we’ll give you back some of your money.Joe Cornely: So our Farm Bureau Policy Counsel Leah Curtis reminding us that it doesn’t matter how good the relationship is, how long the deal’s been a handshake. When it comes to leasing farm ground, it’s best to get it on paper.last_img read more

Three brothers get life term in UP’s Muthber village murder case

first_imgA special CBI court on Thursday sentenced three brothers to life in prison for killing a 17-year-old girl five years ago. Special Judge Vinayak Singh also imposed a fine of ₹1.30 lakh each on the convicts – Rohtash, Sunil and Lalit – after holding them guilty under Sections 302 (punishment for murder), 307 (attempt to murder) and 452 (house-trespass after preparation for hurt, assault) of the Indian Penal Code (IPC). They were directed to pay ₹1.50 lakh and ₹50,000 to the girl’s parents Suresh Pal and Anita, respectively. Public prosecutor Darshan Singh said due to a land dispute, the assailants barged into the girl’s house in Muthber village under the Bhorakala police station and attacked her parents in March 2014. As the assailants fired upon her parents, the girl came in between and sustained gunshot injuries. Later, she succumbed to her injuries, said Singh. Initially, Rohtash, who was also allegedly involved in the 2013 Muzaffarnagar riots, had managed to evade arrest. Another suspect, Praveen, was given a clean chit during the investigation.last_img read more

National Security Council Must Get Report on ZOSOs

first_img The legislation gives the security forces certain essential powers required to address serious crimes, while upholding the rule of law and protecting citizens’ fundamental rights and freedoms. Story Highlights The National Security Council is expected to receive a 10-day report on the happenings in areas designated Zones of Special Operations (ZOSOs). “It is not something you fire and forget… . The way the legislation is written they (zones) require close attention. The Prime Minister has really stepped out on this one,” Mr. Anderson said in an interview on the Jamaica Information Service (JIS) television programme, ‘Issues and Answers’. The National Security Council is expected to receive a 10-day report on the happenings in areas designated Zones of Special Operations (ZOSOs).National Security Advisor, Major General Antony Anderson, explains that the report is a requirement under the Law Reform (Zones of Special Operations) (Special Security and Community Development Measures) Act.“It is not something you fire and forget… . The way the legislation is written they (zones) require close attention. The Prime Minister has really stepped out on this one,” Mr. Anderson said in an interview on the Jamaica Information Service (JIS) television programme, ‘Issues and Answers’.For residents living in areas that are designated ZOSOs, Mr. Anderson is urging full cooperation with the joint forces, which are acting to rid the communities of criminals.Social intervention committees, which will be comprised of some community members, will be formed to work with residents to determine opportunities for training.Included in the social component of the ZOSOs will be the Housing, Opportunity, Production and Employment (HOPE) Programme; and the HEART Trust/NTA, which “will intervene if necessary to provide training”.Various other State agencies such as Jamaica Social Investment Fund (JSIF) and the Social Development Commission (SDC) will also intervene where necessary.“This intervention will be lined up in a way to create sustainable change, which is really what we want. At the end, the communities will have normal leadership structures and determine their own future,” said the National Security Advisor.The legislation gives the security forces certain essential powers required to address serious crimes, while upholding the rule of law and protecting citizens’ fundamental rights and freedoms.Approved by the House of Representatives and Senate, the law will also facilitate the implementation of key social interventions in communities adversely affected by crime and violence.The Prime Minister can only declare an area a Zone of Special Operations after the Chief of Defence Staff and the Commissioner of Police, as members of the National Security Council, have advised him so to do in writing.last_img read more

Between the Sheets opens this weekend

first_imgLead Actresses Emry and Stevi say the characters they are playing are very real women and the most realistic women they have ever played.The show runs May 2nd, 3rd and 4th at the North Peace Cultural Centre and tickets can be purchased at npcc.bc.ca. Tickets are $25 per Adult and $20 per Student/Senior.There will be a special Question and Answer period offered after curtain call with the audience. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – Stage North Theatre Society presents their performance of Between the Sheets at the North Peace Cultural Centre.Between the Sheets is a story of a mother with a special needs son, who goes into an un-scheduled parent-teacher interview with her son’s teacher that she suspects is having more of a relationship with her husband then she would like.This play that is written by Jori Mand and directed by Rob Laventure is a drama and is performed in real-time and just one-act. The subject matter is based on adult content and suggested a 16+ audience.last_img read more